Sugawara Mitsushige (1257) (Metropolitan Museum of Art), via Wikimedia Commons
The Buddha’s decision to teach
[After my enlightenment,] I thought, ‘This Dharma that I have attained is deep, hard to see or realize, it is the highest, most peaceful goal of all. It’s beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to be experienced by the wise. But this generation delights in attachment, is excited by attachment and indulges in attachment. It’s hard for the people of this generation to see the truth of dependent arising. It’s hard for people to see the truth of stopping the karma formations, letting go, finishing craving, the fading of addictions, nirvana itself. If I taught, they would not understand me.
Just then these verses … occurred to me:
‘Enough now with teaching
what, only with difficulty,
This Dharma is not easily realised
by those overcome
with aversion & craving.
What is abstruse, subtle,
hard to see,
going against the flow —
those delighting in craving,
cloaked in darkness —
they won’t [be able to] see it.’
As I reflected like this, my mind inclined to dwelling in comfort, and not to teaching the Dharma.
Then Sahampati, [a dweller in the sublime Brahma heavens] … thought to himself:
‘The world is lost! The world is utterly lost! The mind of the fully awakened one inclines to [his own comfort], not to teaching the Dharma!’
Then, just as a strong man might extend his arm …, Sahampati disappeared from his Brahma-world and reappeared in front of me. He … saluted me with his hands before his heart:
‘Sir, let the abundant one teach the Dharma! Let the One-well-gone teach the Dharma! There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are wasting away because they cannot hear the Dharma. There will be those who will understand the Dharma!’ …
‘Throw open the door to the Deathless!
Let them hear the Dharma
realized by the Stainless One!
Just as one standing on a rocky crag
might see people
all around below,
So, O wise one, with panoramic vision,
ascend the tower
fashioned of truth.
Free from sorrow, look at the people
submerged in sorrow,
oppressed by birth & aging.
Rise up, hero, victor in battle!
O Teacher, travel without debt in the world.
Teach the Dharma, O Abundant one:
There will be those who will understand!’
Then, having listened to Sahampati’s invitation, out of compassion for beings, I surveyed the world with an enlightened eye. As I did so, I saw beings with little dust in their eyes and those with much, those with keen faculties and those with dull, those with good qualities and those with bad, those easy to teach and those hard…. Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses — born and growing in the water — might flourish while immersed in the water, without rising up from the water; some might stand at the surface of the water; while some might rise up from the water and stand without being wetted by the water — so too, surveying the world with an enlightened eye, I saw [the range of beings].
Having seen this, I answered Sahampati:
‘Open are the doors of the Deathless
To those who can hear.
Let them show their confidence.
If I [had thought I would not tell people]
It was because it seemed too troublesome to me.’
Then Sahampati realised,
‘The Abundant one has decided to teach the Dharma.’
He bowed to me, and disappeared.
The Buddha’s attempts to teach
Then I thought, ‘To whom should I teach the Dharma first? Who will quickly understand this Dharma?’
I thought of [my former teachers], but they had passed away…
Then I thought: ‘The group of five [friends] who attended to me when I was practising fasting and self-denial, they were very helpful to me. [Now they are] staying near Benares, in the Game Park at Isipatana. What if I were to teach them the Dharma first?’
Then, having stayed at Bodhgaya as long as I wished, I set out to walk [the long road] to Benares.
Upaka the sectarian met me on the road between the (place of) awakening and Gaya village, and he said to me,
‘Clear, my friend, are your faculties. Pure your complexion, and bright.
What made you go forth? Who’s your teacher? In whose Dharma do you delight?’
all-knowing am I,
with regard to all things,
freed by ending craving:
having fully known this on my own,
whom should I regard as my teacher?
I have no teacher,
and one like me can’t be found.
I have no counterpart in the world with its gods.
For I am a worthy one in the world;
an unexcelled teacher.
I, alone, am fully awakened.
Cooled am I, unbound.
I’m going to Benares
To set rolling the wheel of the Dharma.
In a blindfolded world,
I’ll beat the drum of the Deathless.’
‘From your claims, my friend, you must be a Jina, a universal conqueror.’
‘Conquerors are those like me
who have reached fermentations’ end.
I’ve conquered evil qualities,
and so, [yes], Upaka, I’m a conqueror.’
‘May it be so, my friend,’
And — shaking his head and taking a side-road — he left.
Then, walking in stages, I arrived at Benares, at the Game Park in Isipatana, where the group of five friends were staying. They saw me coming from some way off, and made a pact with one another.
‘Friends, here comes Gotama the contemplative. [He has given up] our struggle [of self-denial], living luxuriously, straying from his exertion, backsliding into abundance. He doesn’t deserve our bows, or even for us to stand up to greet him. Still, if he wants to, he can sit down with us.’
But as I approached, they were unable to keep to their pact. One stood up to greet me, another got me a seat. Another got some water for washing my feet. However, they [still] addressed me as ‘Gotama’ and as ‘friend.’
So I said to them, ‘Please don’t address the Tathagata, the Thus-gone one, by name and as ‘friend.’ The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, fully awakened. Lend ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will teach you the Dharma. Practising as instructed, you will in no long time reach & remain in the supreme goal of the spiritual life, … knowing & realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.’
‘You did not attain any superior human states by practising hardship and deprivation, nor any special knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one. So how can you have done so now — living luxuriously, straying from your exertion, backsliding into abundance?’
‘The Tathagata is not living luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion, has not slid back into abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, fully awakened. [And twice more I repeated my offer to teach them.]’
[They still doubted, so] I said to the group of five, ‘Do you recall my ever having spoken in this way before?’
‘The Tathagata, monks, is not living luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion, has not slid back into abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, fully awakened. Listen, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will teach you the Dharma. If you practice as instructed, before long you will reach the supreme goal of the spiritual life and remain there…, knowing & realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.’
And so I was able to convince them. I would teach two while three went to get food, and we six lived off what the three brought back from their alms round. Then I would teach three of them while two went for food, and we six lived off what the two brought back from their alms round. Then the group of five — thus exhorted and instructed by me — being themselves subject to birth, seeing the drawbacks of birth, seeking the unborn, unexcelled security from oppression, nirvana, reached nirvana. Being subject themselves to aging, illness, death, sorrow and defilement, seeing the drawbacks of aging, illness, death, sorrow and defilement, seeking the aging-less, illness-less, deathless, sorrow-less, undefiled, unexcelled security from oppression, nirvana, they reached nirvana. Complete knowledge & vision arose in them, their liberation was unshakeable, and from the rounds of rebirth they were completely free.
From the Noble Quest Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya number 26.
(Edited and adapted for reading aloud by Ratnaprabha from the translation by Thanissaro (1), referring to translations by Bhikkhu Bodhi (2) and Nanamoli (3).)
- http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.026.than.html .
- Ñāṇamoli Bhikkhu, The Life of the Buddha (Buddhist Publication Society, 1972)