The story of Dharma Day: The Buddha starts to teach

Lotus pond

Sugawara Mitsushige (1257) (Metropolitan Museum of Art), via Wikimedia Commons

The Buddha’s decision to teach


[After my enlightenment,] I thought, ‘This Dharma that I have attained is deep, hard to see or realize, it is the highest, most peaceful goal of all. It’s beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to be experienced by the wise. But this generation delights in attachment, is excited by attachment and indulges in attachment. It’s hard for the people of this generation to see the truth of dependent arising. It’s hard for people to see the truth of stopping the karma formations, letting go, finishing craving, the fading of addictions, nirvana itself. If I taught, they would not understand me.

Just then these verses … occurred to me:

Enough now with teaching
what, only with difficulty,
I reached.

This Dharma is not easily realised
by those overcome
with aversion & craving.

What is abstruse, subtle,
hard to see,
going against the flow —
those delighting in craving,
cloaked in darkness —
they won’t [be able to] see it.’

As I reflected like this, my mind inclined to dwelling in comfort, and not to teaching the Dharma.

Then Sahampati, [a dweller in the sublime Brahma heavens] … thought to himself:


‘The world is lost! The world is utterly lost! The mind of the fully awakened one inclines to [his own comfort], not to teaching the Dharma!’


Then, just as a strong man might extend his arm …, Sahampati disappeared from his Brahma-world and reappeared in front of me. He … saluted me with his hands before his heart:


‘Sir, let the abundant one teach the Dharma! Let the One-well-gone teach the Dharma! There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are wasting away because they cannot hear the Dharma. There will be those who will understand the Dharma!’ …

‘Throw open the door to the Deathless!
Let them hear the Dharma
realized by the Stainless One!

Just as one standing on a rocky crag
might see people
all around below,

So, O wise one, with panoramic vision,
ascend the tower
fashioned of truth.

Free from sorrow, look at the people
submerged in sorrow,
oppressed by birth & aging.

Rise up, hero, victor in battle!
O Teacher, travel without debt in the world.

Teach the Dharma, O Abundant one:
There will be those who will understand!’


Then, having listened to Sahampati’s invitation, out of compassion for beings, I surveyed the world with an enlightened eye. As I did so, I saw beings with little dust in their eyes and those with much, those with keen faculties and those with dull, those with good qualities and those with bad, those easy to teach and those hard…. Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses — born and growing in the water — might flourish while immersed in the water, without rising up from the water; some might stand at the surface of the water; while some might rise up from the water and stand without being wetted by the water — so too, surveying the world with an enlightened eye, I saw [the range of beings].

Having seen this, I answered Sahampati:

‘Open are the doors of the Deathless
To those who can hear.

Let them show their confidence.

O Sahampati,
If I [had thought I would not tell people]
the refined,
sublime Dharma,
It was because it seemed too troublesome to me.’

Then Sahampati realised,


‘The Abundant one has decided to teach the Dharma.’


He bowed to me, and disappeared.

The Buddha’s attempts to teach


Then I thought, ‘To whom should I teach the Dharma first? Who will quickly understand this Dharma?’

I thought of [my former teachers], but they had passed away…

Then I thought: ‘The group of five [friends] who attended to me when I was practising fasting and self-denial, they were very helpful to me. [Now they are] staying near Benares, in the Game Park at Isipatana. What if I were to teach them the Dharma first?’

Then, having stayed at Bodhgaya as long as I wished, I set out to walk [the long road] to Benares.

Upaka the sectarian met me on the road between the (place of) awakening and Gaya village, and he said to me,


‘Clear, my friend, are your faculties. Pure your complexion, and bright.

What made you go forth? Who’s your teacher? In whose Dharma do you delight?’


all-knowing am I,
with regard to all things,

freed by ending craving:
having fully known this on my own,
whom should I regard as my teacher?

I have no teacher,
and one like me can’t be found.
I have no counterpart in the world with its gods.

For I am a worthy one in the world;
an unexcelled teacher.

I, alone, am fully awakened.
Cooled am I,             unbound.

I’m going to Benares
To set rolling the wheel of the Dharma.

In a blindfolded world,
I’ll beat the drum of the Deathless.’


‘From your claims, my friend, you must be a Jina, a universal conqueror.’


‘Conquerors are those like me
who have reached fermentations’ end.
I’ve conquered evil qualities,
and so, [yes], Upaka, I’m a conqueror.’


‘May it be so, my friend,’


And — shaking his head and taking a side-road — he left.

Then, walking in stages, I arrived at Benares, at the Game Park in Isipatana, where the group of five friends were staying. They saw me coming from some way off, and made a pact with one another.


‘Friends, here comes Gotama the contemplative. [He has given up] our struggle [of self-denial], living luxuriously, straying from his exertion, backsliding into abundance. He doesn’t deserve our bows, or even for us to stand up to greet him. Still, if he wants to, he can sit down with us.’


But as I approached, they were unable to keep to their pact. One stood up to greet me, another got me a seat. Another got some water for washing my feet. However, they [still] addressed me as ‘Gotama’ and as ‘friend.’

So I said to them, ‘Please don’t address the Tathagata, the Thus-gone one, by name and as ‘friend.’ The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, fully awakened. Lend ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will teach you the Dharma. Practising as instructed, you will in no long time reach & remain in the supreme goal of the spiritual life, … knowing & realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.’


‘You did not attain any superior human states by practising hardship and deprivation, nor any special knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one. So how can you have done so now — living luxuriously, straying from your exertion, backsliding into abundance?’


‘The Tathagata is not living luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion, has not slid back into abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, fully awakened. [And twice more I repeated my offer to teach them.]’

[They still doubted, so] I said to the group of five, ‘Do you recall my ever having spoken in this way before?’


‘No, sir.’


‘The Tathagata, monks, is not living luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion, has not slid back into abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, fully awakened. Listen, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will teach you the Dharma. If you practice as instructed, before long you will reach the supreme goal of the spiritual life and remain there…, knowing & realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.’

And so I was able to convince them. I would teach two while three went to get food, and we six lived off what the three brought back from their alms round. Then I would teach three of them while two went for food, and we six lived off what the two brought back from their alms round. Then the group of five — thus exhorted and instructed by me — being themselves subject to birth, seeing the drawbacks of birth, seeking the unborn, unexcelled security from oppression, nirvana, reached nirvana. Being subject themselves to aging, illness, death, sorrow and defilement, seeing the drawbacks of aging, illness, death, sorrow and defilement, seeking the aging-less, illness-less, deathless, sorrow-less, undefiled, unexcelled security from oppression, nirvana, they reached nirvana. Complete knowledge & vision arose in them, their liberation was unshakeable, and from the rounds of rebirth they were completely free.

From the Noble Quest Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya number 26.

(Edited and adapted for reading aloud by Ratnaprabha from the translation by Thanissaro (1), referring to translations by Bhikkhu Bodhi (2) and Nanamoli (3).)


  1. .
  3. Ñāṇamoli Bhikkhu, The Life of the Buddha (Buddhist Publication Society, 1972)


The Buddha’s first teaching

Image: John Hill

Today, 8 June 2017,  is the full moon of Dharma Day, the anniversary of the Buddha’s first teaching, known as Turning the Wheel of Dharma.

Here is my Re-rendering of the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (Ratnaprabha, June 2017)

This is what I heard. (After his awakening), the Buddha arrived at the game reserve near Varanasi, (and was reunited with his five former comrades).

He taught the group of five. He said to them: “Going forth (to seek awakening), you must avoid two extremes.

“Looking for gratification in sense pleasures is demeaning, crude and ignoble. It’s what people always go for, but it’s pointless, and it takes you nowhere near the goal.

“Yet self-torment is also ignoble and pointless, and (it commits you to needless) suffering.

“Instead of veering towards one of these extremes, (if you’re) attuned to reality, you will wake up to the middle path. It yields vision so that you truly know. It leads to peace, to complete awareness, to quenching (the flames) and waking yourself up fully.

“Speaking simply, the middle path has eight aspects. These are complete vision, complete emotion, complete communication, complete action, complete livelihood, complete effort, complete mindfulness, and complete unification (of the mind). When I attuned myself to reality, I woke up to this path.

“Furthermore, (I woke up to four noble truths). Firstly, this is the noble truth, the grand reality, of pain. Birth, ageing and illness are painful. Death is horrible. (Then you’ll encounter) depression, grief and physical agony; unhappiness and despair as well, and losing what you love, and not getting what you want. In fact all the aspects of life that we cling to are painful.

“This is the noble truth, the grand reality (that explains) where pain comes from. It comes from thirst, from craving. It is craving that impels us to remake ourselves so that we are still conjoined with gratification and clinging, indulging in one thing after another. (More specifically), it is craving for sense-gratification, craving for continuing (as we are), or craving for oblivion.

“This is the noble truth, the grand reality, of the finish of pain. It is the fading and finishing of that same craving, giving it up, letting it go, not depending on it any more, so that we are completely free from craving.

“This is the noble truth, the grand reality of the way that finishes pain. It is the same middle path (that avoids the extremes) – complete vision and so on.

“When I fully woke up, I saw this for the first time. A fresh insight, wisdom and awareness, indeed a complete illumination, dawned on me. I truly saw pain as a grand reality, I saw I had to understand it, and (eventually) I did.

“Similarly, I truly saw, as a grand reality, how pain comes from craving. I saw I had to let go of that craving, and I managed to do that.

“And I truly saw the grand reality of (the possibility of) pain finishing (for good). I knew I had to realise that finish directly, and I did realise it.

And I truly saw the grand reality of the middle way that frees one from pain, I saw that I had to journey on that way, and I travelled it to the end.

“It was these crucial insights that enabled me to perfect my full and complete awakening. This is an awakening that completes the journey, (a journey open to) all forms of life in the universe. I saw, and I realised: unshakeable is the liberation of my mind, I’m no longer compelled to re-make myself, this is it.”

The group of five listened enraptured to the Buddha. And as he listened, one of them, Kondañña, saw the truth clearly and lucidly, and realised that all that comes into being must also finish. “Kondañña knows!” Exclaimed the Buddha, “Kondañña knows!”

This, in the game reserve near Varanasi, was the (first) rolling of the Wheel of Dharma by the Buddha. The earth spirits yelled with all their might: “THE SUPREME WHEEL OF THE BUDDHA’S DHARMA IS NOW TURNING, AND NO ONE CAN STOP IT!” And the cheer went up through the ranks of invisible beings up to the (formless) world of pure spirit, so that the whole world trembled, and an incandescent light spread from horizon to horizon.

Brackets signify words added for clarification. Some repetitions have been removed. This re-rendering is interpretive, and other interpretations are possible; it is well worth looking through several translations.

Vangisa the poet

39a Aloka_LBC_painting-747601

Aloka working on his triptych of the Buddha and his disciples


A story of the poet-monk Vangisa, from the Kindred Sayings, i, 192.

Once, the Abundant Man was staying near Savatthi, in Anathapindika’s park, the Jeta Wood, with over a thousand Bhikkhus. He gave a talk about Enlightenment, which was instructive, eye-opening, exciting and inspiring. They all listened to the Dharma enraptured, attending closely with their whole minds.

Afterwards, Vangisa the poet came up and saluted the Buddha, saying ‘It’s come to me, Abundant One, it’s come to me, Happy One.’ The Buddha said ‘Let it come to you, then, Vangisa!’, and Vangisa praised him in a fitting poem.

A thousand comrades and more
Are gathered round the Buddha here
And here he teaches Dharma pure,
A want-less state, Nirvana sure,
Suffused with utter confidence.

To words of spotless Dharma
Taught by the peerless Buddha
They listen without distraction.

So beautiful, the Awakened shines
As noblest in this noble band.
O dragon of abundant treasure,
Seventh sage in the line of seers,
Summer thunder-cloud of timely rain,
Pouring Dharma on your listeners!

And I, a listener, left my dreams,
Sleeping in the teatime sun,
So eager to see my teacher here.
Mighty hero, I Vangisa will ever follow,
And let my words flow in devotion.

The Buddha said ‘Tell me, Vangisa, had you already composed these verses?’ ‘No, my teacher, they came to me as I spoke them.’ ‘Then please, Vangisa, let us hear some more.’ ‘Then I shall contnue,’ said Vangisa.

The devious ways of death you master,
And take your plough to crumble
The fallow fields of our hearts.
Look at him! Sowing freedom,
Reaping harvest of the Path-grains.

He shows the bridges over the flood,
He shows the deathless shore,
And we that have seen that Dharma
Are moored immoveable.

A bearer of the light, he burst
Beyond all viewpoints dark and fixed.
First knowing, then surmounting
The highest peak, he guides us to that vantage.

Now! With the truth so well explained,
What place is there for sleeping,
For we who’ve heard the Dharma?
Thus within the Buddha’s system,
Train well, practise intensely without pausing,
And always keep your reverence alive.

Adapted freely by Ratnaprabha from Catherine Rhys Davids’ translation (Pali Text Society), with help from the Theragata version (verses 1238-1245) translated by Prof. Norman.

An Indian Buddhist evolution myth


Illustration by Andy Gammon

In the ‘Dialogues‘, the Buddha is represented in several places as telling stories of `beginnings’ (Pali agañña), as he calls them. His listeners must have been highly amused by his tongue-in-cheek explanations of the origins of various current customs, sayings, and phrases. The intention seems in part to have been to satirise the solemn creation stories of contemporary Indian religious traditions, especially those involving a creator god or justifying the pretensions of the Brahmin priesthood. The longest text has a more explicit message; the Buddha is linking unethical behaviour with degeneration, and ethical behaviour with further evolution, both in the cultural sphere and in the spiritual life of the individual disciple.

The overall framework is similar to the cyclic Hindu myths mentioned above: an unimaginably protracted cycle of alternate involution and evolution of the cosmos and consciousness. At the limit of involution, says the myth, beings were reborn in an immaterial heaven world called Streaming Radiance. After ages, they were reborn on the youthful earth, but were still non-material; they were androgynous, dwelling in the sky, needing no food but rapture, and they shone brightly, immersed in their own radiance. The world was then `just one mass of water’, and dark so that sun, moon, and stars were not visible.

After a very long period, mighty winds whipped up and evaporated the water, and a rich, creamy essence solidified on its surface. One of the beings was of a curious or exploratory nature (alternatively translated as `greedy’); he dipped his finger in the essence and tasted it. He found it delicious and very sweet, like pure wild honey, and others followed his example. Craving grew in them, until they were breaking off lumps of the stuff to eat. Consequently their radiance dimmed, and the sun and moon could be seen, and so the days, months, and seasons came into being. At the same time, the world’s land-masses arose from the oceans: mountains growing like swelling bubbles on porridge as it cooks.

As the beings feasted, their bodies gradually coarsened, those that ate most becoming noticeably uglier than the norm. This induced conceit in the rest, who despised the ugly ones. As a result, the creamy essence disappeared, much to the dismay of all, and in its place a sort of fungus grew, also delicious (bitter according to one account), which became the beings’ food. The coarsening of body and disparity of beauty increased further, giving rise to more conceit and spite, so that the fungus, too, vanished, being replaced by a fast-growing creeper, and then rice. The rice could be eaten straight off the plant, and always grew again in time for the next meal.

For the first time excretion was necessary, and coarsening and distinctions increased further, until the sexes could be distinguished in some, `and the women became extremely preoccupied with the men, and the men with the women’. Thus they desired each other, and later had sex, first in public, but later in private because of the disapproval of the beings who were still androgynous, who threw cow dung at anyone seen in flagrante delicto. Hence the invention of huts!

An unusually lazy being could not be bothered to gather wild rice before every meal, and so started the practice of hoarding it for longer and longer periods. This once again affected the food supply; perhaps it was being over-exploited. The rice developed husks, and did not regrow when cropped. The beings held a mass meeting, lamenting the results of their `unskilful ways’, and decided they would now have to invent farming, and cultivate the rice. This led to property, as each had his own plot with a marked boundary, and to theft, when one greedy being stole rice from a neighbour’s field.

Now all the features of society as we know it crowded in apace. Caught, the thief promised not to steal again, but relapsed twice, and was seized, rebuked, and beaten up. Thus stealing, lying, censuring, and punishment all appeared. Another meeting was called, and the consensus was to elect the most handsome, capable, and kind-hearted of their number as a judge, to censure or banish wrong-doers. This first ruler was named ‘the People’s Choice’ (the Buddha in a previous life, according to one version). The ‘Beginnings’ text goes on to explain the origins of the various trades and occupations.

At first sight, this myth is describing a degeneration rather than an evolution. There is something in this, but I prefer to see it as a co-evolution of the perceived and social worlds as human nature comes to terms with external reality. The radiant beings at the beginning are completely subjective, self-absorbed, and passive; they may hint at the pre-self-aware state. A perceived world grows around them as they interact with it.

They carry through pre-human greed into a self-aware, social existence, and so the perceived world evolves to match that greed. (Objective reality is still, in a relative sense, objective, but how we perceive it stems largely from our emotional attitude to it.) Thus, for example, farming and property do not evolve in the myth until the wild rice is over-exploited. The greed and ignorance were already present in the shining beings, but it took active intervention in the world before evolution could solidify these tendencies into the social structures of self-interest and self-protection that we know today. At first, self-awareness gave expression to greed and delusion, but it is also the foundation for higher evolution. The shining beings were not enlightened, and were too passive to work for enlightenment. The human state, for all its faults, is said to be best for that.

From Appendix to The Evolving Mind, by Robin Cooper

The Path of Unlimited Friendliness — The Karaniya Metta Sutta

A poem by the Buddha, translated from the Pali


  1. If you know what is truly good for you and understand the
  2. possibility of reaching a state of perfect peace, then this is how
  3. you need to live.
  4. Start as a capable person who is upright (really upright), gently
  5. spoken, flexible, and not conceited.
  6. Then become contented and happy, with few worries and an
  7. uncomplicated life.
  8. Make sure your sense experience is calm and controlled, be duly
  9. respectful, and don’t hanker after families or groups. And avoid
  10. doing anything unworthy, that wiser people would criticise.
  11. Then meditate like this:
  12. May all be happy and feel secure. May all beings become happy in
  13. their heart of hearts!
  14. And think of every living thing without exception: the weak and the
  15. strong, from the smallest to the largest, whether you can see them
  16. or not, living nearby or far away, beings living now or yet to arise
  17. — may all beings become happy in their heart of hearts!
  18. May no one deceive or look down on anyone anywhere, for any reason.
  19. Whether through feeling angry or through reacting to someone else,
  20. may no one want another to suffer.
  21. As strongly as a mother, perhaps risking her life, cherishes her
  22. child, her only child, develop an unlimited heart for all beings.
  23. Develop an unlimited heart of friendliness (metta) for the entire
  24. universe, sending metta above, below, and all around, beyond all
  25. narrowness, beyond all rivalry, beyond all hatred.
  26. Whether you are staying in one place or travelling, sitting down or
  27. in bed, in all your waking hours rest in this mindfulness, which is
  28. known as like living in heaven right here and now!
  29. In this way, you will come to let go of views, be spontaneously
  30. ethical, and have perfect Insight. And leaving behind craving for
  31. sense pleasures, from the rounds of rebirth you will finally be
  32. completely free!

Ratnaprabha, September 1990

The above is a re-rendering of the Karaniya Metta Sutta, based on the Pali text, a number of English translations, and various commentaries. I have striven for clarity and accessibility rather than elegance or absolute literalness; hence the detailed notes below. The Sutta describes a complete path, from Right Vision, through an ethical foundation and spiritual life, through the practice of Metta Bhavana, to Insight. It is said to have been taught by the Buddha, for recitation and meditation, to a group of monks troubled by the animosity of some tree-devas, and through it the monks all gained Enlightenment. Apparently it is the most commonly chanted Sutta in Theravadin countries, where it is regarded as protecting the reciter against misfortune, and as having a beneficial effect upon others.


The line numbers in the translation have been added for reference in these notes, and the paragraph breaks do not necessarily coincide with verse breaks in the Pali. Words in square brackets in the notes have been added by me for clarity. The term ‘path’ in the title is mine. Diacritics omitted.

Line      Note

1       you: actually in the third person (he/she/one).
know: kusalena, lit. if you are ‘skilled in’.
is truly good for you: attha, or ‘goal’.
understand: abhisamecca. Or ‘intuit’, ‘envisage’.

2       [possibility of reaching]
state of perfect peace: santampadam, ie Enlightenment.
this is how you need to live: karaniyam.

4       [Start as]. capable: sakkho.
upright: uju.
gently spoken: suvaco. Or ‘harmoniously, well, happily, co-operatively’

5      flexible: mudu. Or ‘mild’. Not conceited: anatamani – not ‘high-minded’.

6      [Then become]. contented: santussato. Happy: subhavo. Or ‘easily supported’. With few worries: appakicco. Or ‘unbusy’.

7      uncomplicated life: sallahukavutti. Or ‘light livelihood’.

8      …calm: santindriyo. Lit. ‘calm faculties’.
controlled: nipako (could be a separate quality, = ‘prudent’, ‘with practical intelligence’).  Or ‘restrained’.

duly respectful: appagabbho. Or ‘not insolent’.

9      don’t …families: kulesu ananugiddho. Kula can mean family, clan, local community, etc.
unworthy: khuddam. Or avoid doing the ‘slightest’ thing…

10     wiser people: viññu. criticize: upavadeyyum.

11     [Then …this]

12     happy: sukhino. secure: khemino
.        all beings: sabbe satta.
happy … hearts: sukhitatta. Lit. ‘happy-self’.

14     [And think of]: actually continues as reported speech (ie ‘may…’ etc.)
living thing: panabhut‘. Lit. ‘breathing being’.

15     smallest to largest: various sizes listed.

16     beings living now: bhuta. Yet to arise: sambhavesi.

18     deceive: nikubbetha. Look down on: atthimaññetha.
anywhere … reason: katthacina. Can mean anywhere or on any grounds, I think.

19     angry: byarosana – or hatred.
reacting to [someone else]: patighasañña. Or a ‘feeling of repulsion, or rage’.

20     suffer: dukkham.

21     [strongly as]
perhaps risking her life: ayusa. Or ‘for as long as she lives’.
cherishes: anurakkhe.
child: putta, ‘child’ or ‘son’.

22     develop … heart: manasam bhavaye aparimanam.

23     friendliness: metta. Entire universe: sabba-lokasmim.

24     [sending metta].
Beyond all narrowness: asambadham.

25     … rivalry: asapattam. … hatred: averam.

26     staying … place: titthañ. Or ‘standing’.
travelling: caram. Or ‘walking’.

27     in bed: sayano. Or ‘lying’.
in … hours: yavat’asso vigatamiddho. Or ‘when you are slothless’.
rest in: adhitteyya – or exercise, radiate.
mindfulness: satim.

28     living in heaven: brahmam … viharam. Or ‘the sublime state’.
right here and now: idamahu.

29     [In this way, you will come to]
let go: anupagamma. Views: ditthiñca.
[spontaneously].  Ethical: silava.

30     perfect Insight: dassanena sampanno.
leaving behind: vineyya. Or ‘giving up’.
craving: geddham.

31     sense pleasures: kamesu. As third precept.
rebirth: gabhaseyyam. Lit. ‘reborn (via a womb)’
from … free!: Lit ‘will never again be reborn’.


The Sutta is found in the Chapter of the Snake of the Sutta Nipata, and in the Khuddaka Pattha. The Pali (roman characters) is in the Pali Text Society’s volumes of the above and in Buddharakkhita’s Wheel Pamphlet, Metta (No 355/6, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, 1989).


Sangharakshita, The Enchanted Heart (Ola Leaves, 1978) 156. A verse translation, close to Woodward’s (see below).
Saddhatissa, The Sutta Nipata (Curzon, 1985), 15.
Buddharakkhita, Metta (See above), 4.
Nanamoli, The Life of the Buddha (Buddhist Publ. Soc., Kandy, 1972), 180.
W. Rahula (source unknown).
F L Woodward, Some Sayings of the Buddha (Buddhist Soc., 1973), 44.
Hare, Woven Cadences of the Early Buddhists.
Sister Vajira, The Sutta Nipata (Maha Bodhi Society, Sarnath, nd). – Partly quoted in W L King’s In the Hope of Nibbana (Open Court, Illinois, 1964), 150.
Lord Chalmers, Buddha’s Teachings (Vol. 37, Harvard Oriental Series). – Partly quoted in E A Burt’s The Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha (New American Library, NY, 1955).
E Conze, Buddhist Scriptures (Penguin, 1959), 185.
A Solé-Leris, Tranquillity and Insight (Rider, 1986), 122. Partial.

…and many on the internet.